Stories tagged The Universe


This amazing video from NASA (via EarthSky) shows an incredibly gigantic eruption on the Sun's surface that produced three different types of events: a solar flare, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a really interesting and rare phenomenon known as coronal rain.

Coronal rain occurs when hot plasma in the eruption cools and condenses then follows the outline of the normally invisible magnetic fields as it rains back to the Sun's chromosphere. I found that particularly amazing to see.
The images were gathered on July 19, 2012 by the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s AIA instrument. One frame was shot every 12 seconds over a span of 21.5 hours from 12:30 a.m. EDT to 10:00 p.m. EDT. The video plays at a rate of 30 frames per second, so each second equals 6 minutes of real time.

What's extra cool is when the scale of this thing is compared to the size of Earth­. If you were feeling small earlier today, you should be feeling microscopic after watching this.

EarthSky website


This is a protest paper for the right for Pluto to be a planet. Pluto may be a small planet, but it orbits the sun just like the other planets do. People think Pluto may be a satellite to another bigger formation of rock, but maybe Pluto may have a stronger gravitational pull than the rest of the planets for some strange reason. Pluto has been a planet for so long, science teachers will have to make sure they do not include Pluto in the list of planets or when they are teaching. If anyone has heard of Mr. Parr the science teacher who does science songs, in planets around the star, he explains the planets and says for Pluto at the end, "if you want it back, scream until they hear you out". Thank you for reading my short blog, it should really have been a burst, but oh well. Please leave comments below on if you think that pluto should be a planet.
☺ over and out,


.Jose A. y Bonilla's 1883 photgraph
Jose A. y Bonilla's 1883 photgraphCourtesy Wikimedia

In August, 1883, Mexican astronomer Jose A. y Bonilla observed several objects passing in front of the solar disc. These objects were reported as being surrounded by a mist, looked dark against the solar disc, but bright outside of the disc. He took a photograph and published his findings in the magazine L'Astronomie in 1886. This photograph has had many interpretations, ranging from a flock of birds passing between the observer and the sun to the first photographic documentation of a UFO.

Recently, researchers from the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico have come up with an alternate explanation. Hector Javier Durand Manterola, Maria de la Paz Ramos Lara, and Guadalupe Cordero hypothesize that what Bonilla observed in 1883 was a highly fragmented comet, in an approach almost flush to the surface of the Earth. According to their calculations, the distance from the Earth's surface to the objects was between 538 km (334.3 miles) and 8,062 km (5009.5 miles), and the mass of the object before fragmentation was between 0.002 and 8.19 times the mass of Halley's Comet. Fragmentation of comets has been observed recently, as in the case of the comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, which fragmented in 1995/1996, 2001, and 2006, as shown here.Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (2006)
Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (2006)Courtesy NASA

However, the report's claims have been questioned. A comet breaking up so close to earth should have resulted in a meteor shower, and no astronomers detected one.

Report: Interpretation of the observations made in 1883 in Zacatecas (Mexico): A fragmented Comet that nearly hits the Earth


Voyage 2 Image of the Earth and moon
Voyage 2 Image of the Earth and moonCourtesy NASA
NASA has been filling my email inbox with some cool images of late. Here are some of my recent faves.

Juno image of Earth and moon
Juno image of Earth and moonCourtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI
For starters, check out these two images of the Earth and the moon – similar subject and faming separated by 34 years. The first picture represents the first time the Earth and moon were ever captured together by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 2 when it was 7.25 million miles from Earth. The second photo is from the Juno spacecraft just a couple of weeks ago (August 26, 2011) and also shows the moon (right) and Earth (left) this time from 6 million miles from Earth. I am not sure why the image from 1977 and further away is better than the image from 2011 and closer, though I suspect it has something to do with the fact that the onboard camera for the Juno spacecraft is named JunoCam...ugh. (As an aside, you can follow Voyager 2 on Twitter, where it tweets updates on its distance from Earth.)

Irene, August 22, 2011
Irene, August 22, 2011Courtesy NASA

Irene, New York Landfall
Irene, New York LandfallCourtesy NASA/NOAA GOES Project

KatiaCourtesy NASA
Various images of recent and current hurricanes are awe-inspiring. A recent selection includes Hurricane Irene from the International Space Station as it was forming on August 22, another of Irene taken by the GOES-13 satellite 28 minutes before the storm made landfall in New York, and tropical storm Katia from August 31 as it was forming over the Atlantic Ocean.

Lastly, today NASA released images of the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 landing sites taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). I think they are super cool.Apollo 17 landing site
Apollo 17 landing siteCourtesy NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/ASU

We don’t have shuttles anymore, but NASA still is doing some amazing stuff.


A star is born: Artist conception of a protostar
A star is born: Artist conception of a protostarCourtesy NASA/Caltech
Scientists have been studying a newly-forming star that’s blasting incredibly hot and gigantic pulses of water from its poles. The extreme temperature at work (180,000 degrees F.) means the water isn’t in liquid form but rather a super-hot concoction of unfused hydrogen and oxygen atoms. As the jet streams shoot into space away from the star’s accretion disk and outer gas cloud, they cool and the atoms interact with dust and each other, and water molecules form as ice.

The protostar, known as L1448-MM, is 750 light years from Earth, and located in the sky near the Pleiades star cluser. Using the European Space Agency’s,Herschel infrared orbiting telescope astronomers are able to measure the elements making up the baby star, and its bizarre behavior. Each powerful jet pulsating from the center of the star shoots “the equivalent of a hundred million times the water flowing through the Amazon River every second”, at a speed of about 120,000 miles per hour. More incredible is the fact that each “pulse” is estimated to last for about a year! Merely a flash of time in cosmic terms.

Each pulse produces shockwave in the surrounding space. Scientists are uncertain of how long the pulsing phase continues during a star’s birth. It could be anywhere from 1 to 10 million years. But astronomers think “water” fountains like that detected on L1448-MM are a common occurrence in the creation of stars, and that our own Sun went through the same process as it was forming.

SOURCE and LINKS story
European Space Agency
Star formation info
More about L1448-MM


By Brady Anderson

Growing up as a boy in a small farming community in rural Nebraska one of my favorite things to do was to stare at the night sky. It was always so beautiful. I would often fantasize of traveling from planet to planet to uphold intergalactic peace as a Jedi knight. Among these imaginations I always wondered where all these planets came from. I especially always wondered where the moon came from. Was it really made of cheese? Did a man truly live there? Could a cow jump over it? And was there actually anything worth seeing on its dark side? Well, now that I am older I don’t look at the sky as often as I used too—darn city lights!—but I do still wonder how exactly the moon come about. As it turns out many in the scientific community have also been concerned with this question and over the years there have been a few different theories as to the origin of the moon.

If found some theories about how the moon was formed on the Planetary Science Institute’s website. One theory is that the moon was a planet that was form around the same time as the earth was formed but was pulled into orbit around the earth due to its smaller density. This theory was largely discredited because the moon does not have any iron. The lack of iron is evidence that the moon was not formed from the same process as the earth was because if it was it would contain iron as the earth does. In response to this lack of iron another theory suggested that the moon formed in some other part of the solar system where there was little iron and was then somehow captured into earth’s orbit. This was disproved when lunar rocks were analyzed and showed the same isotope composition as the earth. The fact that they have the same isotope composition gives evidence that the earth and the moon were formed in the same area of the solar system. Another theory suggested that the moon the early earth was spinning so quickly that the moon flung off the earth. However, it has been proven that the angular momentum and energy need for such a thing to happen are impossible given what we know about the size and composition of the earth and moon.

The leading theory of the moon’s origin is an idea put forward by Dr. William K. Hartman and Dr. Donald R. Davis ( They proposed that the moon was formed by a body about the size of mars impacting the earth some around 60 million years after the earth’s initial accretion (Earth System History Third Edition, p. 248). Apparently this celestial body blasted into the earth with such speed and impact that some of the mantle of the body was separated to form what is now the moon. The Planetary Science Institute ( shows a computer simulation of what the impact probably looked like.

This impact theory explains several facts about the moon and so lend to its probability. First, the moon does not have any water whatsoever. The theory suggests this is so because water and other compounds were expelled from the moon during its formation. Second, the moon has a small metallic core. This is explained by the theory because when the mars sized body impacted the earth its core sank into the earth and became part of its core, but the body’s mantle exploded from it to form the small core of the moon. Third, the moon has a feldspar-rich outer layer. The theory accounts for this because of the heat involved in the impact formation of the moon. The early moon would have had a magma ocean early on much like the early earth (Earth System History Third Edition, p. 248-249).

So there you have it! The moon was most likely formed from an impact of a smaller celestial body on the earth. It was definitely not made of cheese.


I believe that you all, the sciencebuzz community is aware that Last year 2009 was the in International Year of Astronomy, abbreviated as IYA2009 in alphanumerical characters.

IYA2009Courtesy IYA2009

2009 was acclaimed by UNESCO and IAU and approved the International Year of Astronomy, as it completed 400 years for the discovery of Telescope by great Italian genius, Galileo Galilei, back in 1609.

Much things happened in 2009 in commemoration of this and it was a worldwide celebration, in general with the universal theme, "Universe, Yours to Discover"

That's enough talk,

I just made this post to discuss what would come next. As per the latest updates IYA2009 will officially be concluded on 09th January 2010, with the closing ceremony from Padua, Italy. What would be beyond 2009?

Will there be any IYA again whatsoever?

Let's discuss !!

I appreciate your valuable comments and as per what I believe your comments would be all what that will complete/ fulfill this blog post !!



GOCE Satellite: The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer
GOCE Satellite: The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation ExplorerCourtesy ESA
Can it be true? Yes, for a mere $5,544 dollars round-trip airfare to Greenland! In March 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) into orbit around our planet, which is now transmitting detailed data about the Earth’s gravity. The GOCE satellite uses a gradiometer to map tiny variations in the Earth’s gravity caused by the planet’s rotation, mountains, ocean trenches, and interior density. New maps illustrating gravity gradients on the Earth are being produced from the information beamed back from GOCE. Preliminary data suggests that there is a negative shift in gravity in the northeastern region of Greenland where the Earth’s tug is a little less, which means you might weigh a fraction of a pound lighter there (a very small fraction, so it may not be worth the plane fare)!

In America, NASA and Stanford University are also working on the gravity issue. Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a satellite orbiting 642 km (400 miles) above the Earth and uses four gyroscopes and a telescope to measure two physical effects of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity on the Earth: the Geodetic Effect, which is the amount the earth warps its spacetime, and the Frame-Dragging Effect, the amount of spacetime the earth drags with it as it rotates. (Spacetime is the combination of the three dimensions of space with the one dimension of time into a mathematical model.)

Quick overview time. The Theory of General Relativity is simply defined as: matter telling spacetime how to curve, and curved spacetime telling matter how to move. Imagine that the Earth (matter) is a bowling ball and spacetime is a trampoline. If you place the bowling ball in the center of the trampoline it stretches the trampoline down. Matter (the bowling ball) curves or distorts the spacetime (trampoline). Now toss a smaller ball, like a marble, onto the trampoline. Naturally, it will roll towards the bowling ball, but the bowling ball isn’t ‘attracting’ the marble, the path or movement of the marble towards the center is affected by the deformed shape of the trampoline. The spacetime (trampoline) is telling the matter (marble) how to move. This is different than Newton’s theory of gravity, which implies that the earth is attracting or pulling objects towards it in a straight line. Of course, this is just a simplified explanation; the real physics can be more complicated because of other factors like acceleration.

Albert Einstein
Albert EinsteinCourtesy none
So what is the point of all this high-tech gravity testing? First of all, our current understanding of the structure of the universe and the motion of matter is based on Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity; elaborate concepts and mathematical equations conceived by a genius long before we had the technology to directly test them for accuracy. The Theory of General Relativity is the cornerstone of modern physics, used to describe the universe and everything in it, and yet it is the least tested of Einstein’s amazing theories. Testing the Frame-Dragging Effect is particularly exciting for physicists because they can use the data about the Earth’s influence on spacetime to measure the properties of black holes and quasars.

Second, the data from the GOCE satellite will help accurately measure the real acceleration due to gravity on the earth, which can vary from 9.78 to 9.83 meters per second squared around the planet. This will help scientists analyze ocean circulation and sea level changes, which are influenced by our climate and climate change. The information that the GOCE beams back will also assist researchers studying geological processes such as earthquakes and volcanoes.

So, as I gobble down another mouthful of leftover turkey and mashed potatoes, I can feel confident that my holiday weight gain and the structure of the universe are of grave importance to the physicists of the world!


I'm not sayin, I'm just sayin...
I'm not sayin, I'm just sayin...Courtesy ROOTS UP
I don't need scientists to tell me there are hints of dark matter on Minnesota's Iron Range. Have you heard that Bob Dylan song, North Country Blues? If you believe Bob, the Iron Range can be a pretty depressing place. A dark place, full of dark matter. Are you following me here?

It turns out that Bob Dylan grew-up not far from a very deep hole in the ground known as the Soudan mine. It used to be an iron mine, but as he points out in that song I mentioned, "The shaft was soon shut, and more work was cut, and the fire in the air, it felt frozen." Hmmm...what did he mean by "fire in the air"?

He may not have been referring to the Soudan mine in particular, but it seems a little bit odd that around the time he released Down in the Groove, a terrible album, this half-mile deep mine was reopened by scientific researchers as a high-energy physics laboratory. Deep beneath the ground, shielded from outside particle interference by the surrounding geologic formations, researchers began studying things like neutrinos and proton decay, searching for WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and conducting something called a Cryogenic Dark Matter Search.

So Bob Dylan and a bunch of scientists, all hanging out on the Iron Range, all thinking about the nature of the universe. I'm telling you, this is no coincidence. I don't mean to imply that Bob Dylan writes his songs inside a physics laboratory a half mile beneath the Iron Range, but wouldn't that just make so much sense?

Recently a team of scientists working in this very underground lab announced that they may have detected particles of dark matter, invisible material that could lead to huge breakthroughs in both physics and astronomy. HUGE BREAKTHROUGHS. I would explain more, but to be honest, I don't really understand physics. Perhaps one of you can chime in?

Bob Dylan also recently released a new album of Christmas songs. Are these events related? You tell me.

This MinnPost article explains more about the recent scientific discovery. You can also look back at this Science Buzz post about dark matter, or follow-up on this conversation with physicist Prisca Cushman, who knows all about WIMPS and Dark Matter, and may even know Bob Dylan. On that note, this is pretty funny.


A killer agent from the future: Like the Terminator, but with bread!
A killer agent from the future: Like the Terminator, but with bread!Courtesy Hillarie
So, I’m sure y’all have heard the news by now. The Large Hadron Collider, the largest and most elaborate scientific device ever built, has broken again. And it never even got the chance to end the world.

See, many people believe that the LHC’s attempts to catch a glimpse at the forbidden knowledge of the universe could, like a nerd’s efforts to peek into a locker room of large and aggressively athletic members of the opposite sex, go terribly wrong. Earth-endingly wrong. Sure, pretty much everyone who knows anything about it says that the LHC really isn’t dangerous in that way, and the odds that it would cause a chain reaction that would destroy the world are about the same as its chances of creating an army of teenage mutant ninja turtles. (There simply aren’t enough karate-practicing teenage turtles out there to mutate!) But that doesn’t seem to matter, because every time they try to turn that sucker on, something goes wrong, and we keep getting robbed of our first row seats at the end of the world (or, alternately, our seeding in the ninja reptile tournaments).

Do you know what killed the project most recently? I think you do, if you read this post’s headline. A bird. A little bird dropped its delicious toast on a piece of outdoor equipment (most of the LHC is deep underground). Presumably it was a bird, anyway. Whatever the case, a mystery slice of baguette found its way to some important equipment that was not baguette-proof, causing the machine to rise a few important degrees in temperature.

The damage caused to the machine wasn’t catastrophic. It shut down as the temperature in the circuit increased, which is a good thing, because if the LHC had been fully operational at the time, such an increase in temperature could have caused the superconducting magnets in the particle accelerator to become less-superconducting, and then all that energy from the near-light speed particles would… crash. Boom. But that didn’t happen, and the LHC should be up and running this winter.


A month ago, the internets were alive with discussion over the theory that the Large Hadron Collider was being sabotaged… by the future!

Naturally I ignored this news, because Science Buzz doesn’t credit nonsense like this with attention, and, what’s more, I’m familiar with the concept of someone at one point in time sabotaging his self at another point in time, and I know that it only goes the other way. Trying drinking something named after a cartoon at the end of an evening, and you’ll see what I mean.

I don’t totally get the idea behind this time travel sabotage theory, but the basic premise is that the universe, or “God,” or the fundamental forces of physics, or whathaveyou, aren’t into the possibility that the LHC could create a Higgs Boson. The Higgs is an important theoretical particle that sort of… ties the room together, if we’re calling the whole universe a room. Experiments at the LHC are trying to create conditions in which a Higgs might be observed. However, say a couple of respected scientist dudes, it could be that the Higgs is so “abhorrent to nature” that its creation would send ripples back in time to prevent it from being created.

Leaving aside the exact mechanics of time ripples, let’s consider what’s happening here. As we all know, while killing your own grandfather is often temptingly within reach, going back in time to kill your own grandfather is impossible. It could just be that no one is owning up to doing it, but the situation also describes a paradox: if you were to travel back in time to kill your grandfather, he couldn’t have created your mom or dad, who, in turn, couldn’t have created you, so you couldn’t go back in time to kill him, so… you get the idea. One might think that the universe attempting to undo the creation of a Higgs boson presents a similar paradox—if the creation of the boson is what causes it to destroy the equipment before it can be created, it would never be created, and therefore couldn’t destroy the equipment that creates it. Bleh. On the other hand, the scientists say, while you can’t kill your grandpa in the past (darn!) you can, say, push him out of the way of a speeding bus. Yay! (Unless the event of your grandpa’s bus-related death was the sole inspiration for your time traveling adventures.) The setbacks in the LHC’s operations, say the theorists, could be the universe trying to push us out of the way of a speeding bus, as it were. But what about the Higgs is so abominable? They aren’t sure about that.

It seems to me that there are still some brain-twisting complications in that theory. Cause and Effect, I think, are going to have difficult time sorting out whose clothes are whose in the morning. But… come on! A bird dropped some bread on the LHC! Since when do birds drop things on things? It has to be time-traveling mischief.